- Anyone who wants to learn Bio Chemistry
- Advanced Bio Chemistry
- Transcription and Regulation
- Protein Structure
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript.
Transcription proceeds in the following general steps:
1. RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA
2. RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. This is done by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides
3. RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides (which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand)
4. RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand
5. Hydrogen bonds of the RNADNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand
6. If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA may be further processed. This may include polyadenylation, capping, and splicing
7. The RNA may remain in the nucleus or exit to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex
The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein’s synthesis through translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for non-coding RNA such as microRNA, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes. Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule. Proteins are polymers specifically polypeptides formed from sequences of amino acids, the monomers of the polymer. A single amino acid monomer may also be called a residue indicating a repeating unit of a polymer. Proteins form by amino acids undergoing condensation reactions, in which the amino acids lose one water molecule per reaction in order to attach to one another with a peptide bond. By convention, a chain under 30 amino acids is often identified as a peptide, rather than a protein. To be able to perform their biological function, proteins fold into one or more specific spatial conformations driven by a number of non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic packing. To understand the functions of proteins at a molecular level, it is often necessary to determine their three-dimensional structure. This is the topic of the scientific field of structural biology, which employs techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and dual polarisation interferometry to determine the structure of proteins
Protein structures range in size from tens to several thousand amino acids. By physical size, proteins are classified as nanoparticles, between 1100 nm. Very large aggregates can be formed from protein subunits. For example, many thousands of actin molecules assemble into a microfilament
A protein generally undergoes reversible structural changes in performing its biological function. The alternative structures of the same protein are referred to as different conformational isomers, or simply, conformations, and transitions between them are called conformational changes
These questions will give you basic idea for Examination Preparation and/or interview on Nucleic Acids and Genetic Code Regulation.
- These questions are only for practice and understanding level of knowledge only. It is not necessary that these questions may or may not appear for examinations and/or interview questions
- In this practice test, because of large amount of questions (around 42 questions) some of questions may have repeated
- I had to put as 70% pass rate because there may also be wrong answers from my side